Additives

Types of Aftermarket Additives


Additives are at work in cars every day, protecting engines and enhancing performance. BIZOL develops products that contribute to the proven performance of BIZOL lubricants. All additives are exhaustively tested in the laboratory and in the field under real-world conditions.

Many additives solve specific problems and protect engines and fuel systems. These additives clean fuel injectors, bolster performance, prevent gasket leaks, keep engines and fuel tanks clean, and prevent engine damage from high mechanical loads.

  • Gasoline Additives
  • Gasoline Fuel Additive
  • Diesel Fuel Additives
  • Oil Additives
  • Radiator Additives
  • BIZOL Additive and Lubrication Products Are Top Class
  • Additives
  • What Are Additives?
  • Oil Additive Groups
  • Oil Modifier
  • Oil Protection 
  • Surface Protection
  • Seal Conditioner
  • Additive Packs
  • Surface Impact
  • Quality Improvement
  • Prevention Against Oil Degradation
  • Multifunctional Aspect of Additives
  • Evolving Additive Technology
  • Additive Conflicts
  • Future Additive Technology

Aftermarket additives are available that deal with specific problems and supplement protection offered by high quality lubricants. Aftermarket additives, while enhancing performance, cannot and does not increase engine horse power and performance beyond what the vehicle was originally capable of. They are, however, excellent products when used correctly and help restore performance in older engines.

BIZOL additives protect fuel systems, enhance lubricating oil performance, and protect cooling systems.

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Gasoline Additives

 

Gasoline fuel additives have several functions. Firstly, there is the need to control the rate of combustion and to prevent premature fuel ignition. Secondly, there's the need to reduce noxious emissions, and, thirdly, to condition the fuel. These additives may be grouped as follows:

• Control of ignition characteristics: Gasoline engines use a spark produced by the sparkplug to ignite the fuel. This gives precise control of the ignition process and is one of the key factors controlling fuel economy and power. Gasoline ignites easily, and to ensure it does not ignite in the hot combustion chamber before the spark plug fires, antiknock additives are added that increase the auto-ignition temperature of gasoline. Octane boosters perform a similar function by preventing spontaneous ignition when fuel is compressed during the compression cycle of modern high compression engines. Uncontrolled gasoline ignition is particularly harmful to engines and must be avoided.


• Pollution control: One of the products of combustion is carbon monoxide, which is an odorless, poisonous gas that contributes toward the formation of smog. A group of products called oxygenates reduces the formation of carbon monoxide by encouraging more complete combustion. Gasoline may contain as much as 10 per cent oxygenates.


• Engine protection: A number of products are added to gasoline to prevent corrosion and formation of deposits. Antioxidants prevent the oxidation of gasoline, which results in corrosive and gummy deposits that block filters and injectors. Corrosion inhibitors reduce corrosion of metal components in the fuel system and combustion chamber caused by acidic compounds. Detergents are used to remove sooty deposits from fuel injectors, and lubricants provide lubrication of injectors and prevent deposition of gummy residues.

 

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Gasoline Fuel Additive

 

Gasoline Fuel additives are divided into two groups, gasoline additives and Diesel Fuel Additives, and perform slightly different functions. The additives in gasoline serve primarily to improve the combustion process whereas in diesel they condition the fuel.

As in many other areas, additive technology is being driven by relentless development in automotive technology that seeks to extract more performance out of smaller engines while simultaneously reducing emissions. Gasoline additives have two primary purposes, engine cleaning and boosting octane rating:

 

 

• Combustion chamber cleaner: BIZOL Combustion Chamber and Valve Cleaner is an ash-free mixture of detergents and dispersants that cleans and removes deposits, thus preventing pre-ignition and possible dilution of the fuel-air mixture that results in poor running. It's ideal for oldecarsr engines and is compatible with all modern engines.

 


• Fuel injector cleaner: Blocked or restricted fuel injectors reduce engine power and cause poor combustion. BIZOL Injector Cleaner disperses deposits, allowing injectors to perform correctly and will lower fuel consumption in engines with dirty injectors.

 

• Octane booster: Some vehicles require high octane fuel that may not always be available. BIZOL Octane Booster increases the octane rating of gasoline and reduces pinking problems in older vehicles. It also improves combustion and reduces engine wear.

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Diesel Fuel Additives

 

Diesel fuel additives are used to clean fuel systems and to prevent fuel gelling during winter:



• Diesel additive: BIZOL Diesel Additive cleans fuel injectors and improves the lubricity of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULS). It can be used continuously or, as and when required, to clean dirty fuel systems.

 


• Anti- gel: In cold climates, diesel is specially treated with anti-gelling additives. However summer diesel may not contain sufficient anti-gel and winterized diesel may not have enough anti-gel to prevent gelling during cold snaps. BIZOL Diesel-Antigel is effective down to minus 24 ºF (-31 ºC).

 

Diesel engines use compression ignition instead of spark ignition. Fuel is injected into the engine cylinder at a precise time and is ignited spontaneously by the high pressures achieved during the compression cycle. Diesel fuel additives perform subtly different functions compared to gasoline additives. The additives have three main functions: to condition the fuel, prevent growth of undesirable bacteria, and to keep the fuel system clean.

• Fuel conditioning: There are several aspects to fuel conditioning. Firstly, the ignition characteristics of diesel are controlled by its cetane number, and cetane enhancers are added that improve cold starting performance. Secondly, in cold weather, waxy compounds present in diesel may crystallize, blocking fuel filters and causing fuel starvation. Pour point depressants are used to reduce the temperature at which these waxes solidify to permit cold starts in extreme winter weather. Thirdly, lower levels of sulfur in modern ultra-low-sulfur diesel have made it less conductive, and conductivity improvers are added to reduce the risk of static electricity igniting diesel during handling.


• Bacteria control: Although diesel contains no water, during transport and storage some water condenses in fuel tanks. Diesel is lighter than water and floats above it. This is conducive to the growth of bacteria, which contaminates the fuel and blocks filters and injectors. A biocide is added to reduce the risk of bacterial growth.


• Lubricity and cleanliness: The natural ability of diesel to act as a lubricant may not always be sufficient to protect high pressure injection pumps and fuel injectors, so, depending upon the fuel composition, lubricity additives may be required. During combustion, soot is produced especially when the engine is cold. This soot collects on fuel injectors causing partial or complete blockage of the injection nozzles. Detergents added to the fuel reduce this possibility and clean the injectors. Another issue affecting modern fuel recirculation systems is that diesel has a tendency to form resins and gums when heated. The recirculation of diesel fuel from hot injectors to the fuel tank may cause filter and injector blockages. Diesel stabilizers are added to reduce the likelihood of this occurring.

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Oil Additives

 

BIZOL aftermarket oil additives are ideal for dealing with specific problems and enhancing engine protection between oil changes:

 

BIZOL Oil Additive: This is a multipurpose additive that stabilizes oil viscosity, reduces friction, and protects against engine wear.

 

BIZOL Oil Viscosity Stabilizer: This product is suitable for gasoline and diesel engines, it maintains oil viscosity and prevents thinning caused by frequent cold starts.


BIZOL Oil System Cleaner: This engine oil cleaner effectively disperses sludge and lacquer forming contaminants and keeps deposits in suspension until oil changes.


BIZOL Motor Leakage-Stop: This seal conditioner works by rejuvenating old seals and also maintains oil viscosity to reduce oil loss and consumption in all engines.


BIZOL Anti-Smoke: This product is primarily intended for older or worn engines, it reduces oil combustion by increasing the oil viscosity to reduce the amount of oil that enters the combustion chamber and also ensures oil that does enter the combustion chamber burns cleanly.

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Radiator Additives

 

BIZOL manufactures additives for automotive cooling systems that are designed to keep cooling systems clean and to deal with small, hard-to-find leaks. These additives are compatible with modern cooling systems and help prevent serious engine problems by keeping cooling systems working properly:

 

BIZOL Cooling System Cleaner: Automotive cooling systems gradually accumulate deposits and debris as the condition of the coolant deteriorates. This may be exacerbated by the use of water containing high levels of dissolved solids. This sophisticated cleaning agent is compatible with rubber and plastic components found in cooling systems and dissolves calcium carbonate and oil deposits.

 

BIZOL Radiator Leak-Stop: Modern aluminum radiators may develop small leaks that are hard to find. This product contains a dispersant that can effectively seal hair-line cracks and other small leaks. It is not suitable for larger leaks and if application does not stop water loss, it is recommended that motorists seek professional help.

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BIZOL Additive and Lubrication Products Are Top Class

 

BIZOL manufactures a full range of lubrication products designed to meet the needs of today's motorists. BIZOL produces high quality synthetic and conventional motor oils that meet the most demanding specifications, and products are available that meet the needs of American, Asian, and European cars.

 

BIZOL both manufactures and uses additives from a number of top-tier additive suppliers to ensure that BIZOL lubrication products are manufactured to the highest standards and that they provide superior protection to all vehicles including passenger, commercial, and heavy vehicles. Bizol also caters to the needs of industry with a wide range of agricultural and industrial products.

 

Fuel additives represent an important segment of the additive market in that there are literally hundreds of fuel additives available that are used in gasoline and diesel vehicles. Together with oil additives, modern fuels, and synthetic oils, these products make it possible for modern motor engineering technology to produce vehicles that are powerful, economical, and non-polluting.

 

BIZOL, a German company, is proud of its contribution towards modern automotive engineering through its high quality lubricating oils and additive technology designed and produced by a team of dedicated engineers and scientists. 

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Additives

 

Additives are products added to petroleum products such as lubricating oils and fuels that have specific properties to ensure lubricating oils and fuels protect vehicle engines, increase efficiency, minimize pollution, and reduce wastage. Automotive technology, as it exists today, could not exist without additives because base oils, on their own, cannot provide the level of lubrication, engine protection, and emission reductions required.

Today's motor oils have comprehensive additive packs that provide sophisticated, long lasting protection, and are usable for thousands of kilometers/miles. Similarly, fuel contains numerous additives that enhance performance and vehicle reliability. There is a thriving business for aftermarket additives that provide additional and specific protection for motor vehicles.

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What Are Additives?

 

Additives are chemical products blended into base oils with the intention of:

• Improving the lubrication properties of oil over all operating conditions.
• Reinforcing and enhancing positive qualities of the base oil.
• Reducing or eradicating undesirable oil properties.

The overall purpose of oil additives is to modify the properties of lubricating oils so they protect vehicle engines under all operating conditions while reducing emissions and enhancing engine oil life. The percentage of additives in oil can vary from a few per cent to as high as 25per cent. Additive packages are carefully designed to ensure motor oils comply with the relevant API or ACEA specification and is suitable for use in all engines requiring oil to those specifications.

Chemicals used as additives include molybdenum compounds and fatty acids to reduce friction, phosphates and polysulphides as anti-wear agents, and antioxidants to prevent oil oxidation that results in deposits and thickening of the oil. Rust and corrosion inhibitors are used to prevent attack by organic acids present in oil and from acids produced as a result of combustion. Detergents, or soaps, made from metallic compounds of sodium, potassium, and calcium neutralize acids, and dispersants keep products of combustion and other contaminants in suspension, keeping engines clean.

Other additives improve the viscosity profile of oil so that as oil heats up, viscosity changes are minimized, ensuring good start-up lubrication as well as retaining sufficient viscosity to effectively lubricate engines when they are hot. These additives are long chain polymers and known as viscosity index improvers. A particular problem experienced in cold winter weather is that waxes in the oil crystallize and make it difficult or even impossible to pump engine oil, leading to engine failure. Pour point depressants are used to reduce the temperature at which waxes crystallize.

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Oil Additive Groups

 

Oil additives can be grouped into three main groups in terms of their functions. There are additives that modify oil properties, protect the oil from external and aging effects, and shield engine surfaces from wear and damaging deposits. A fourth group covers miscellaneous issues such as seal performance.

The technical requirements of each additive group are dictated by the intended oil specification and the chosen base oil. High quality base oils generally require lower levels of additives, although conversely, more onerous engine requirements that have been introduced require the selection of both high quality base oils and advanced additive packs.

Another aspect that's important is that base oils derived from different crude oil stocks may contain distinctly different mixtures of hydrocarbons, requiring unique refining techniques and alterations to additive packs so blenders can manufacture lubrication oils to a particular specification.

 

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Oil Modifier

 

An oil modifier is added to the oil so that it alters the oil properties to achieve certain qualities. The two primary oil modifiers are:

• Viscosity Index Improver: Possibly the most important property of oil is its viscosity. Oil should be sufficiently thin when it's cold to adequately lubricate a cold engine, yet retain sufficient viscosity to protect and lubricate the engine when it is hot. This is a particular issue with API Group I and II conventional base oils that have a low viscosity index. Viscosity index improvers modify the natural viscosity of oil. They are long chain polymers that, when cold, are coiled into a tiny ball and have little effect on the oil's viscosity. When heated, they open into a long molecule that thickens the oil, increasing its viscosity.
• Pour Point Improver: Most lubrication oils contain a small percentage of wax that's dissolved at normal temperatures. Once the oil cools below a certain temperature the wax crystallizes and the oil will not flow or pour. This is a problem in cold climates and pour point depressants are used to prevent wax crystals growing so oil will flow during very cold weather.

 

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Oil Protection

 

As oil is used, it starts to chemically degrade. Also, under certain operating conditions, foam may form in the oil. Additives are used to reduce these effects:

• Antioxidants: Lubricating oil contains a range of hydrocarbons of different molecular lengths. When oil on the cylinder liners and in the cylinder head is heated by the combustion process, some of these products oxidize into a range of fatty products that form sludge, black asphaltic deposits, lacquers, and acidic compounds. The oxidation process is accelerated by a catalytic reaction with metal engine components. Antioxidants work by coating the metal surfaces, thus preventing or reducing oxidation.
• Anti-foaming Agents: Oil has a tendency to foam during high speed operation, leading to the formation of air bubbles in the oil. This causes oil cavitation, fluctuating oil pressure, and possible engine damage. A defoamant, often made from a silicon product, allows the air bubbles to escape from the oil and reduces foaming.

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Surface Protection

 

Surface protection relates to the protection of engine surfaces where the primary lubrication method is through boundary lubrication. It also covers protection against corrosion and the avoidance of harmful deposits. The primary additives that protect engine surfaces include:

• Detergents: They have two functions. Firstly, as they are alkalis, they neutralize acids formed by oil degradation and during combustion and so prevent corrosion. Secondly, they ensure oxidation products are held in suspension preventing them from depositing on engine surfaces. Detergents are soaps based on metals such as calcium, sodium, and magnesium. Barium can be used but is generally avoided due to toxicity concerns.


• Dispersants: Dispersants also keep contaminants in suspension and due to a higher molecular weight are effective at preventing the deposition of heavier particles. They perform a cleaning function by preventing soot, varnish, lacquer, and other carbon-containing products of combustion from agglomerating into larger particles and separating out from the oil.


• Anti-wear additives:
These additives protect heavily loaded engine parts from damage. When two components rub together, the heat produced causes anti-wear additives to decompose into a compound that coats the wear surfaces. This coating protects the underlying metal surfaces from damage. An excellent and commonly used anti-wear product is zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP), although to some extent it has been replaced by ashless anti-wear additives due to a tendency to foul the catalyst in catalytic convertors.


• Extreme-pressure additives:
These are similar to anti-wear additives but operate at higher temperatures on components where loads are very high. These additives have become extremely important as specific engine power has increased, leading to higher mechanical loads.


• Friction modifiers: These additives reduce friction between surfaces by forming a tough, low friction film that separates metal surfaces from the lubricating oil. Commonly used products are molybdenum compounds and long-chain fatty acids. They also reduce wear in low temperature areas where anti-wear agents are not effective.


• Corrosion inhibitors: These are products that are strongly attracted to metal surfaces. They form a durable, continuous film over metallic surfaces by a combination of chemical interaction and physical attraction. They are especially effective for the protection of bearing materials that are vulnerable to attack by organic acids and also protect steel and iron surfaces from rust caused by moisture or entrained water in the oil.

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Seal Conditioner

 

One of the consequences of using highly refined API Group III oil or fully synthetic oil is these oils contain few if any aromatics. With API Group I and II oils, the levels of aromatics is higher, and they have a tendency to help seal materials to swell and stay soft. Synthetic oils include a seal conditioner additive to keep seals soft and in good condition.

 

Additive Packs

 

Additives are frequently prepared as a cocktail of active substances to blend base oil to a particular specification. They may also be supplied singly as required by the lube oil blender. The blending process requires careful control with the metering of exact quantities of the appropriate additives into the base oil. Some additives require pre-heating. Precise control is required to avoid contamination, and blending processes are frequently PLC controlled to ensure consistency.

When additives are supplied as packs, the blending process is simplified. The blending process may take some time as some additives need to be slowly added while the oil is agitated. After blending is complete, samples are taken for analysis to verify the blended oil is to the correct specification.

Additive packs are prepared with three specific objectives in mind: to control surface impact, improve the quality of the oil, and to protect oil from unwanted changes.

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Surface Impact

 

A primary reason why modern vehicle engines last as long as they do is the quality of the lubricating oil additives, which minimize damage to engine surfaces. It's not unusual to hear of engines that have run for 250,000 miles (402,336 km) without being opened. Isuzu claims the design life for their diesel truck engines is 310,000 miles (498,897 km).

Surface impact additives play a major role in extending the life of an engine:

• Prevent deposits: Detergents ensure that waste products arising from oil oxidation and thermal degradation do not precipitate as varnish-like deposits on engine surfaces. They also prevent the precipitation of soot and other particles onto engine surfaces.


• Prevent sludge formation: Engine sludge forms when sufficient sludge particles agglomerate, allowing the sludge to fall out of the oil. Dispersants prevent this by associating with the sludge particles and keeping them in suspension. Over time, this leads to thickening of the motor oil, to the point that an oil change is required, but by preventing sludge formation, the additives ensure engine surfaces are clean and properly lubricated.


• Change friction characteristics to minimize wear: Anti-wear and extreme pressure additives are thermally sensitive, and when heavily loaded metal surfaces heat up, these products react and form a protective coating on these surfaces that reduces friction and prevents impact damage. This process ensures heavily loaded components such as valve stems, tappets, camshafts and other point-contact surfaces are not damaged or worn down.

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Quality Improvement

 

Additives enhance the overall quality of base oil. They allow the use of cheaper base oils yet ensure the oil meets prescribed quality standards. Some quality enhancing aspects of the additive package are:

• Consistent lubrication film: Friction modifiers are attracted to metal surfaces, and this ensures these surfaces are always covered by a thin film of oil, which reduces friction and protects surfaces from wear.


• Flowability: It's important that oil flow is consistent and all parts of the engine receive adequate flow. One of the biggest challenges is to ensure that, in cold weather, oil does not form a gel and wax crystals that impede its flow. Pour point depressants lower the temperature at which this occurs so that during North American winters, oil retains its viscosity.


• Temperature resistance: This is achieved through the use of viscosity index modifiers that ensure the oil is neither too thin at high temperatures nor too thick at low temperatures; this is along with anti-wear and extreme pressure additives.


• Seal protection: Seal materials are prone to aging effects, especially from modern oils. Seal conditioners prevent this by softening the seals and are absorbed by seal material, causing the seal to swell slightly and seal more effectively.

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Prevention Against Oil Degradation

 

As the automotive industry moves toward less frequent oil changes, so does the need to ensure that lubricating oil does not degrade between oil changes. When 3,000 mile oil change intervals were the norm, this was hardly an issue as long as the oil provided adequate engine protection. In addition to the use of better, longer lasting base oils, additives extend the service life of oil in several ways:

• Prevention of sludge formation: Sludge, formed from soot and the decomposition of acidic compounds that form in the oil over time, may block oil ways leading to oil starvation and reduced engine cooling. Detergents and dispersants prevent sludge forming by keeping soot and other deposits in solution in the oil.
• Prevent accelerated aging: As additives do their work, they are used up. In order for oil to be suitable for extended operation, additive packs need to contain sufficient additives to adequately cover the anticipated period between oil changes.
• Avoid engine corrosion: The metals used in engines are susceptible to corrosion unless protected. Rust and corrosion inhibitors coat metal surfaces and neutralize acidic compounds formed during combustion to prevent corrosion.
Protect against moisture: Condensation of small amounts of water inside engines is unavoidable. Water contributes toward rust, sludge, oxidation, and oil foaming. Various additives protect engines from corrosion due to moisture and prevent sludge formation, oxidation, and foaming. These small quantities of moisture are usually evaporated when engines reach operating temperatures.

 

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Multifunctional Aspect of Additives

 

Many additives perform more than one function. For example, some anti-wear products are extremely good antioxidants and corrosion inhibitors. There are viscosity index modifiers that have excellent dispersant and pour point depressant characteristics.

These interactions are taken into account during the design and testing of additive packages and are a reason behind the purchase of complete additive packages as opposed to the ad hoc application of individual additives.

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Evolving Additive Technology

 

Additive technology is continually evolving to meet new requirements. Earlier API Group I base oils had high levels of aromatics, high sulfur content, and a low viscosity index, so additive packs for these oils were primarily focused on improving the viscosity index plus countering sludge formation through the use of detergents and dispersants.

API Group II oils have similar viscosity index ranges as Group I base oils with values that may vary between 80 and 120, but they differ in that they have lower quantities of sulfur and aromatics. Additive packs for these base oils include similar viscosity index improvers but do not need the same quantity of detergents and dispersants due to lower aromatic levels and lower sulfur levels that reduce emissions. Most current, high quality conventional lubrication oils are blended from API Group II oils. In order to meet the latest API SN / CJ-4 requirements, the additive packs have been upgraded to cater for higher engine loads, improved deposit protection, and more stringent sludge control.

API Group III oils are highly refined by severe hydrocracking and have particularly good and stable properties. These oils are considered to be synthetic oil due to their similarity to fully synthetic API Group IV PAO oils. They have a high viscosity index requiring fewer, if any, viscosity index improvers. These oils permit extended oil change intervals and are suitable for modern engines. They have negligible levels of aromatics and waxes and deteriorate slowly. Additive packs focus on ensuring long life, low sludge formation, deposit suspension, and anti-wear properties. These high quality oils together with appropriate additives also ensure low soot and ash production in diesel vehicles fitted with diesel particulate filters.

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Additive Conflicts

ive technology is continually evolving to meet new requirements. Earlier API Group I base oil

One aspect of additive technology that manufacturers have to be careful about is conflict between different additives. Although this is unlikely to be an issue between various brands of commercially available motor oil, there have been examples when viscosity index modifiers contributed toward gel formation and several other issues with low temperature pumpability.

Lubrication oil blenders go to considerable lengths to ensure additive conflicts do not occur and adopt stringent quality control procedures. However, conflicts may occur when aftermarket additives are used, and care should be taken to monitor oil condition regularly to identify unusual signs such as sludge and thickening of the oil. This is not to say that aftermarket additives do not work, they do and are sold, not only by independent companies but by most major lubrication oil suppliers.

 

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Future Additive Technology

 

Some interesting additive technology improvements demonstrate the continual developmental work conducted by additive and oil manufacturers as they continuously improve their products to meet modern requirements for better fuel economy, decreased emissions, and long oil life.

One development is the use of very thin lubricating oils in heavy vehicles. An example is the use of 0W-20 oil by Iveco, an Italian truck maker, that demonstrated a reduction of 0.44 per cent in fuel consumption at highway speeds and over 1 per cent at lower speeds.

There have been suggestions that nano technology may lead to significant improvements in the performance of some additives, although there appear to be few documented developments in this regard.

The growth in biodiesel production from fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) products, such as palm oil, soybean, and rapeseed, and the intention to increase the percentage of biodiesel in commercial diesel has raised concerns about the inherently reactive nature of FAME products, which tend to increase lubricant oxidation, corrosion, and the formation of deposits. Fortunately, it has been demonstrated that provided top tier API Group III and IV lubricating oils are used, the negative impact of high percentages of FAME biodiesel is low and manageable.

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